Animals are often the best source of comfort when we generally feel unwell or are suffering from a debilitating illness. Emotional Support Animals are all about providing comfort, security, companionship, and love when suffering from a mental or emotional disability of illness. These are called emotional support animals and they are a groundbreaking way to alleviating debilitating symptoms of mental and emotional disabilities.
Another key difference is that emotional support animals do not require any kind of specialized training. In fact, very little training is required at all, provided that the animal in question is reasonably well behaved by normal standards, such as being fully house-broken and does not have bad habits that would disturb neighbors, such as frequent or lengthy episodes of barking. Additionally, the animal can not pose a danger to the other tenants or workers.
In order to qualify for an emotional support animal, you need an official letter from a certified mental health professional, such as a Licensed Clinical Social Worker, Psychologist, or Psychiatrist. Learn more about how to get your ESA letter here.
Throughout this article, you will be provided with information regarding what an emotional support animal is, how they differ from a service dog or therapy dog, laws, rules and regulations related to an emotional support animal, the benefits of owning an emotional support animal letter, how to identify if you have been provided with a fake letter, and all the places you and your emotional support animal can venture to.
What is an Emotional Support Animal?
An emotional support animal (ESA) is an animal that provides therapeutic benefit(s) to their owner through support and companionship to help alleviate symptoms associated with a mental or emotional disability.
Most importantly these animals provide comfort, companionship, and relief for their owner in the accomplishment of one or more major life activities. The Americans with Disabilities Act establishes the definition of a “major life activity“, and does so rather broadly. A quick non-exhaustive list from the law: “major life activities include, but are not limited to, caring for oneself, performing manual tasks, seeing, hearing, eating, sleeping, walking, standing, lifting, bending, speaking, breathing, learning, reading, concentrating, thinking, communicating, and working.”
Examples of conditions with drastically reduced symptoms by an emotional support animal might include anxiety, depression, PTSD, trouble sleeping and many more.
Types of Emotional Support Animals
1. Can a dog be an emotional support animal?
Absolutely! In fact, emotional support dogs are the most common type of ESA animal since dogs help with reducing symptoms of anxiety, depression, and other mental or emotional disability. While some breeds are better suited to provide emotional support, there is no legal requirement for an emotional support dog to be a specific breed.
2. Can a cat be an emotional support animal?
Yes. Similar to dogs, some breeds of cat are better than others at providing support. That being said, we all receive support in different ways. It is up to the individual to determine which breed is the best option for an emotional support cat for them. You can find more details about registering an emotional support cat here.
3. Can a bird be an emotional support animal?
Legally, yes. With that said, CertaPet does not generally work with Licensed Mental Health Professionals who are quick to approve birds. You may have seen the emotional support turkey that was on a plane in 2016 – that’s not us! This isn’t because we don’t love birds, but because there isn’t a conclusive amount of evidence-based research to support birds as a certified emotional support animal.
4. What other types of animals are acceptable as emotional support animals?
There isn’t a strict statement outlining which animal species or breeds qualify as an emotional support animal. There are advocates for emotional support animal that seek to include rats, monkeys, mice, rabbits, miniature pigs, snakes, hedgehogs, and more. There are a number of issues that arise when trying to expand the list to include less typical animals. Not the least of these are legal and ethical considerations for the public safety and consideration.
What is the difference between an emotional support dog, a therapy dog, and a service dog?
Upon qualifying for an emotional support dog, many individuals are unsure whether or not their animal is the same thing as a service dog or therapy dog. The answer to that is no, they are not. Explained below are some of the basic characteristics and differences between the three.
1. Emotional Support Dog
An emotional support dog provides support to a specific individual suffering from a mental or emotional disability. Unlike a service dog, they are not trained to perform specific task(s) and they accomplish their purpose by their presence and natural compassion. Their sole purpose is to provide the patient with relief in difficult times.
2. Service Dog
A service dog is a trained dog that aids and assists an individual suffering from disabilities such as visual impairment, mobility impairment, seizures, hearing impairment, post-traumatic stress disorder, and diabetes with day-to-day tasks and activities. These animals undergo rigorous training and have developed skills intended to help with specific functions.
3. Therapy Dog
Therapy dogs typically travel with their owner to hospitals, schools, nursing homes, and other places to provide therapeutic relief to those who may be struggling with day-to-day life and activities. These dogs are there to help improve the quality of the patient’s outlook and provide them comfort and joy during their brief visit. Unlike an emotional support animal, they are do not provide support to a specific individual.
Emotional Support Animal Laws, Rules, and Regulations
The two primary Federal Laws governing support animals are the Fair Housing Act and the Air Carrier Access Act. A quick summary of each is outlined below, but for more information about these see ESA Laws.
Additionally, many states and cities have specific laws and ordinances outlining the additional rights. For the purpose of your sanity and ours, we’ve focused on the big two.
1. Fair Housing Act
The Fair Housing Amendments Act of 1988 (FHA) states that apartments or housing communities that do not allow pets must make an exception for an emotion support animal and make suitable accommodation for them and their owner.
- ESA owners must be legally allowed to keep their support animal even in a no-pet housing.
- ESA owners are exempted from pet deposits or pet fees.
- Emotional Support Animals are allowed in “common areas”.
The landlord of the apartments or housing community may require a proof of documentation indicating that the patient is in the need of an emotional support animal due to their mental or emotional disability. This usually called an emotional support animal letter or ESA letter can be obtained through a licensed mental health professional (LMHP).
***CertaPet assists individuals by connecting them with LMHPs licensed to practice in their state and have extensive knowledge and experience in prescribing ESAs to patients in need.
Want to know if you could qualify for an Emotional Support Animal? Take Certapet’s free 5-minute screening.
As the emotional support animal is not supposed to be a trained animal like the service dog, no documentation regarding training or certification needs to be provided to the landlord.
2. Air Carrier Access Act
The Air Carrier Access Act (ACAA) provides the legal requirements to ensure that disabled individuals in need of an emotional support animal are not discriminated when traveling by plane. No airline is allowed to refuse the individual transportation, nor the emotional support animal, or require unreasonable advanced notice before offering the individual with disability services.
- ESA owners can bring their emotional support animal in-cabin during flights.
- ESA owners are exempted from paying any fees associated with the travel of their animal.
There is, however, a set procedure to undergo to ensure the individual and the support animal are accommodated properly. We recommend reaching out to the airline 48 hours in advance, as some airlines have specific forms that must be completed in addition to the Emotional Support Animal Letter.
3. Can my landlord reject my ESA?
If the patient requiring an emotional support animal is renting, the landlord is legally required to allow the renter to have an emotional support animal on the property. This means that the patient cannot be evicted or charged for requiring the aid of an emotional support animal under any circumstances. It would be like denying someone with a wheelchair. All patients and their support animals are protected under the FHA laws.
4. Can my emotional support animal fly with me OR Can I take my emotional support animal on a plane?
When traveling via air travel, a patient with a disability who is aided by an emotional support animal is allowed to fly through the Air Carrier Access Act. There is a set procedure to follow to ensure that your emotional support animal can fly with you.
The individual with the emotional support animal must obtain a letter from their licensed mental health professional declaring the patients mental or emotional disability and the need for the emotional support animal. The documentation cannot be more than a one-year-old and must contain the licensed mental health professional’s letterhead and type of care in which they practice ensuring the authentication of the certificate. Some airlines require the individual to give 48 hours’ notice to the carrier, so be sure to check with the airline before the flight.
Emotional support animals have the right to travel with their passengers in the open plane, and not be stowed in the cargo bay or confined to cages under the seat of the individual.
The ACAA protects emotional support animal and the individuals they are with from occurring a fee for their animal accompanying them aboard the flight. If all requirements are met in the procedure above, the airline the individual is flying with cannot legally ask questions regarding their disability and not allowed to restrict them and their animals from boarding the plane.
5. Does my ESA need a vest?
No, there a no laws or regulations regarding an emotional support animal that states the patient must clearly identify them as an assistance animal. Though it is not required for an emotional support animal to wear a vest, many ESA owners choose to do so. If you are trying to find a good ESA vest for your dog, read this article.
6. Can an emotional support animal go anywhere?
No. An emotional support animal is not accommodated the same rights and privileges as a service dog and cannot go into any establishment where a dog or any other pet is not allowed.
7. Can one person own two ESAs?
Yes, absolutely. The Americans with Disabilities Act is more than capable of making allowances for an individual requiring more than one emotional support animal for successful treatment. However, having more emotional support animals does raise issues with the housing and flying act. Whilst they are not allowed to deny the individual the aid of the emotional support animal, realistically, an airline is not capable of providing for three emotional support dogs on a plane.
Benefits of Owning an ESA Letter
When the individual has qualified for an emotional support animal and has obtained their emotional support animal letter, they shouldn’t throw it away or place it somewhere they can’t find it.
There are many benefits to owning an emotional support animal letter, and that is why the individual should keep it on their possessions at all times. These include:
- The ability to keep your emotional support animal at the rental property or housing community.
- There are no pet fees for when placing a deposit for a rental property.
- There are no pet fees when you fly with your emotional support animal.
How do you Qualify?
Approximately 18% of American adults live with some form of mental or emotional disability. Many of them could positively benefit from owning an emotional support animal. However, most people don’t know about emotional support animals, and more importantly, don’t know if they qualify for one.
1. Who needs an emotional support animal?
Emotional support animals are pets that are assigned to an individual, after qualifying, who suffers from a mental or emotional disability or illness and provides them with comfort, companionship, and love in the hopes that their presence will reduce the individual’s symptoms.
2. Can you get an emotional support dog for anxiety?
Yes, anxiety is considered a mental illness that affects many people throughout the world, and emotional support animal can help to reduce the symptoms many people suffering anxiety get, such as stress, fear, and in some cases even insomnia.
3. Can you get an emotional support dog for ADHD?
Yes, a person suffering from ADHD qualifies for an emotional support animal and is a great means of support. Many people with ADHD tend to feel isolated from the community around them, and an emotional support animal directly addresses that.
4. Can an ESA help you recover from PTSD?
An emotional support animal can help an individual suffering from PTSD alleviate some of their symptoms. Many sufferers with PTSD opt from a dog as their emotional support animal, as they have proven to have a better effect on people with this mental illness. Such benefits are that they are good companions that will not judge the individual, they are fun and will alleviate stress, help the individual engage in the emotion of less leaving them feeling less detached, and giving the individual a reason to have to leave the house, therefore spending more time around people.
5. What other mental and emotional conditions make someone a suitable candidate for an ESA?
Mental or emotional disabilities or illnesses that will qualify an individual for an emotional support animal depends on the severity of their condition and if their individual’s medical health practitioner deems them qualified. An example of another condition is depression.
Where, and How to Get an Emotional Support Animal Letter
Obtaining an emotional support animal letter in order to get the pet is an easy and simple process.
1. What is an emotional support animal letter?
An emotional support animal letter provides the individual with the recognition that they, under a licensed medical professional, a patient with a mental or emotional disability or illness. It also states that the individual is limited by their disability and is affecting their mental well-being, thus, being prescribed with an emotional support animal as necessary treatment.
2. The easiest method: Certapet Process
Certapet is a well-known organization that helps individuals suffering from a mental or emotional illness obtain an emotional support animal. We have helped thousands of people with their brief questionnaire that is completely confidential and takes only a few minutes to complete.
Free 5-minute screening: https://www.certapet.com/screening/
3. Who can prescribe an emotional support animal?
An emotional support animal can be prescribed for treatment by a licensed mental health care professional.
4. What is an LMHP?
LMHP refers to a licensed medical health practitioner, and they are able to qualify the individual for an emotional support animal.
5. Does an emotional support animal have to be certified?
The doctor’s letter is all you need for your ESA. You do not need to certify it anywhere. You do not need to register it anywhere. Please beware that there are a lot of fake Support Animal Registry or Certification sites that try to lure people in registering/certifying their pets with them.
6. Does an emotional support animal have to be registered?
No, an emotional support animal does not have to be registered. The individual’s emotional support animal letter is enough.
7. Can an emotional support animal application be denied?
Yes. An LMHP will not recommend an ESA for you unless he/she is sure that owning one will bring significant improvement to your mental well-being. In case your application is denied, CertaPet issues a refund on the fees you paid.
The 5-minute screening is a great start to understanding if you qualify.
8. Can you buy an ESA dog or cat?
No, an individual cannot buy an emotional support animal as the pet is only there for as long as the individual requires their form of treatment. If the individual sees improvements in their symptoms through the emotional support animal, then they can look at eventually purchasing an animal of their own.
How to Spot a Fake ESA Service?
An emotional support animal is one of the most incredible ways to help alleviate or reduce symptoms in individuals who suffer from a mental or emotional disability or illness. However, many online communities or website take advantage of this and sadly underestimate the severity of a mental or emotional disability. This can result in the individual obtaining a fake emotional support animal letter, and therefore can be possibly denied the animal or denied the benefits of travel and housing that comes with it.
A fake ESA Service commonly exhibits one or more of the following traits:
- The individual’s emotional support animal letter is NOT written by a licensed mental health professional (LMHP).
- The medical health professional the individual seeks qualification through doesn’t have an LMHP licensed to practice in their state.
- There is NO screening to qualify the individual for an emotional support animal.
- The Service that provides the individual with certification for an emotional support animal calls itself a ‘registry’ and asks them to sign up for it.
- There is no follow-on service, meaning that the place in which the individual obtained the certification for the emotional support animal fails to keep in contact with them throughout the process, or for regular check-ups.
Access to Public Places
Just like you would a pet, an emotional support animal can go with their individual to pet-friendly places in their hometown or city, or with them across their travels.
1. Can you bring emotional support animal to work?
If the individual in need of an emotional support animal wishes to take them to their place of employment, then the Fair Employment and Housing Act apply. It states that discrimination regarding the individual’s disability will not be tolerated, and the employers should make suitable accommodations for the disability and emotional support animal to the best of their ability.
Although employers are not explicitly required to allow emotional support animals at work, they are still very likely to consider it as a reasonable accommodation, especially if it enhances an employee’s ability to do his/her job. Again, the support animal in question must be well-behaved and pose no risk to other employees or the workplace itself.
2. Can you bring an emotional support animal to school or college?
Yes, the same rules apply to an individual’s place of employment. If the individual who needs an emotional support animal attends school or college, they are legally allowed to be accompanied by their emotional support animal and be offered suitable accommodation. In some instances, the school or college may require the individual to register as a disability student, so be sure to check with the school or college.
3. Can I take my emotional support animal to a hotel?
Hotel laws differ from housing or travel laws, with some hotels stating that they do not accept ESA’s as they are not legally allowed to. However, the majority of the time hotel owners are companionate towards the individual and the emotion support animal and are happy to accept a person in need. Before the individual makes any travel arrangements, they should check with the local hotels at their chosen destination to see if they accept emotional support animals
4. Are emotional support animals allowed in restaurants?
There are many pet-friendly restaurants that accept and welcome emotional support animals and all animals alike. They will also help you with suitable accommodation whilst you eat. Some restaurants, however, are similar to hotels and strict rules apply that they cannot accept the emotional support animal.
5. Can I take my emotional support animal to a store?
Stores are the same as restaurants or hotels. Some will accept the individual’s emotional support animal and others will not. This is because the emotional support animal, unlike the service dog, is not trained. This is where a vest if the individual chooses to put one on their emotional support animal though it is not a requirement, can come in handy.
6. How to train emotional support animal?
ESAs are not trained as they are only there to provide the individual suffering from a mental or emotional disability or illness comfort, companionship, and possibly reduce symptoms. However, many individuals choose to purchase an animal from a young age and train it to become an emotional support animal. This can absolutely be done.
An emotional support animal is a therapeutic treatment full of love, security, comfort, and companionship for an individual suffering from a mental or emotional disability. If you suffer from a debilitating illness, then an ESA may be the right fit for you.
Other common questions answered by this article: