2 Ironclad Emotional Support Animal Laws (Updated 2019)

Emotional Support Animal Dog

Emotional Support Animal Laws: Understanding Assistance Animals

Emotional Support Animals (ESAs) are animals that are specially designated to assist individuals with emotional or psychological disabilities. They are a type of assistance animal, and according to federal law, assistance animals can be distinguished in the following ways:

Service Animals

Individuals who are blind, deaf, restricted to a wheelchair, or suffer from seizure disorders can benefit immensely from the aid of a service animal. Service animals are dogs or miniature horses that are specially trained to perform tasks and recognize medical conditions.

Emotional Support Dogs and Other Animals (ESA)

ESAs are more specifically chosen as companions to individuals who are psychologically or emotionally disabled. These companions can range from a dog, a cat, or even a miniature horse. ESAs are not trained to perform tasks or recognize particular signs or symptoms but are distinguished by the close, emotional, and supportive bond between the animal and the owner.

See If You Qualify for an Emotional Support Animal

Emotional Support Animal Laws

Who Can Obtain an ESA Letter?

Individuals limited by an emotional and/or mental disability, such as depression or a similar condition, in which affect their mental well-being.
Emotional and psychological disabilities applicable to an ESA letter may include:

  • Social Anxiety Disorder
  • Postpartum Depression
  • Depression
  • Phobias and Fears
  • General Anxiety Disorder
  • Panic Disorder
  • Bipolar Disorder
  • Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
  • Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
  • Seasonal Affective Disorder

An ESA letter is written by a Licensed Mental Health Professional who believes you would benefit from an Emotional Support Animal.
While ESAs may become members of an individual’s family, they should not be confused with traditional pets. ESAs provide a very specific service as an emotional support, and very specific laws govern their use.

HUD notice about emotional support animals considered as not pets

Excerpt from HUD Notice – Assistance Animals are not Pets!

See If You Qualify for an Emotional Support Animal

Federal Laws and ESAs

There are two main federal laws applicable to ESAs and their owners, these include the Air Carrier Access Act, and the Fair Housing Act.
It is important that anyone considering obtaining an Emotional Support Dog letter be aware of the laws that apply to owners and what they should expect from airlines and landlords.
A brief summary of federal laws and ESAs can be found by reading on:

The Air Carrier Access Act

The Air Carrier Access Act was passed in 1990 and works alongside Department of Transportation rules prohibiting discrimination of disabled individuals traveling by air. According to the Air Carrier Act provisions, airlines are not allowed to refuse transportation, limit, or require advanced notice before offering service to individuals who are disabled.
Airlines may require advanced notice for certain accommodations, such as medical equipment or electric wheelchairs, and may require notice for ESAs, depending on the individual airline guidelines.
The Air Carrier Act requires that airlines accommodate ESA owners who have verified identification, which is your ESA letter and possibly additional forms based on the specific airline.
Before you fly, make sure you are aware of the materials you need to board the plane with your Emotional Support Animal. For example, check out Delta’s here.
ESA owners are not required to sit in any particular location unless the animal is large enough to obstruct an aisle that must remain unobstructed.
The Air Carrier Act also restricts airlines from charging fees for accommodating disabled persons with an ESA.

Emotional Support Animal Housing Laws: The Fair Housing Act (FHA)

The Fair Housing Amendments Act of 1988, commonly known as FHA, requires apartments and housing communities that ordinarily restrict pets to make “reasonable accommodation” for ESAs.
The US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) defines “reasonable accommodation” and obligates all housing providers covered under the FHA to allow ‘assistance animals’, including ‘Emotional Support Animals’, as a reasonable accommodation. You can download the exact notice issued by HUD regarding assistance animals here (it’s only a few pages long and defines the laws very clearly – all ESA owners or applicants should go through it).

HUD notice about emotional support animals

Excerpt from HUD notice regarding assistance animals, including emotional support animals.

In short, that means that verified ESA owners (i.e. owners who have an ESA letter written by a Licensed Mental Health Professional) cannot be denied housing, just as individuals in a wheelchair or with a disability cannot be denied housing based on their condition.
In order to be protected by FHA laws, the ESA owner must have a diagnosed disability and provide documentation to the property owner or housing representative.
The benefits of FHA laws include the fact that property owners cannot charge an advance deposit or fees for ESAs. ESA owners should note, however, that if significant damage is done, or if it becomes apparent that the animal is being neglected, the property owner might be able to recoup fees later.
Property owners also cannot question the disability, require the animal to wear identification as an Emotional Support Animal, or refuse housing.
In short, FHA laws protect verified ESA owners who properly care for the animal but may not protect owners who are negligent or destructive.

See If You Qualify for an Emotional Support Animal

Emotional Support Animal California

Updated: Emotional Support Animal Registration is NOT REAL

Is Emotional Support Animal registration a “real” thing?
No, and unfortunately many sites take advantage of unknowing consumers.
These sites claim that to make your pet an Emotional Support Dog or other ESA all you need is to be “registered” in their database and put an emotional support dog vest on fido. This neglects the key point of Emotional Support Animals: they are for people with diagnosed disabilities. Furthermore, wearing an emotional support animal vest is not required for your animal.
This also goes the same to Emotional Support Animal certification or getting your ESA “certified.” It’s a false statement that does not hold up in a court of law and tricks consumers into paying for something that isn’t real.
Both the ACAA and FHA mentioned above only apply to people and their pets with an ESA letter from a Licensed Mental Health Professional (LMHP). The registration part is completely unnecessary and just a way to exploit consumers.
Most airlines and landlords will ask for verified proof of a disability in the form of an Emotional Support Animal letter. Make sure you are prepared with a correctly-written letter (aka only done by an LMHP!) from CertaPet. If you want to know how to get an Emotional Support Animal Letter, click here to get started.

I Already Have an ESA Letter, Should I Use an Emotional Support Dog Registration Site Too?

Absolutely not.
As stated above, registration sites offer no value. There is no such thing as an “Official Emotional Support Animal Registry or Emotional Support Dog Registry.” This also goes for sites with names similar to “United States Dog Registry,” “US Animal Registry,” and “Service Dog Registry of America.”

Can a Landlord Deny an Emotional Support Animal?

Most of the time no.
But let’s be clear.
There are two questions a housing provider must consider when a request for reasonable accommodation is made:

  1. Does the person seeking to use and live with the animal have a disability — i.e., a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities?
  2. Does the person making the request have a disability-related need for an assistance animal? In other words, does the animal work, provide assistance, perform tasks or services for the benefit of a person with a disability, or provide emotional support that alleviates one or more of the identified symptoms or effects of a person’s existing disability?

If answers to both questions are “yes” then a landlord must provide reasonable accommodation for an Emotional Support Animal. CertaPet ESA letters are written by REAL Licensed Mental Health Professionals and in such a way that more than 99% of landlords accept the letters without incident.
The case where an Emotional Support Animal may not be accepted are:

  • If the building has four or less unit and the landlord occupies one of the units
  • Private Clubs
  • Single-family housing sold or rented without a real estate broker

ESAs are More Than “Man’s Best Friend”

Emotional Support Animals are not restricted to Emotional Support Dogs or Emotional Support Cats, but could even be a miniature horse! What is important is that the ESA and the owner have a special relationship that genuinely offers emotional support and wellbeing.
Obtaining an ESA Letter requires more than just a psychological diagnosis; it also requires compliance with standards, such as the Department of Housing and Urban Development’s standards, which includes demonstrating that the animal provides a service that supports the diagnosis.
The journey to a happy, healthy ESA owner relationship may already have begun, but disabled individuals may not realize it. Individuals who already have a pet that brings them comfort and emotional support can apply for an Emotional Support Dog letter, which will provide them with the protections discussed in this article and benefits that are immeasurable.

See If You Qualify for an Emotional Support Animal

2018 Update: Here’s What Emily, A Happy Customer, Has to Say About CertaPet’s Service

Additional Resources

U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development – Section 504 Website
Emotional Support Animal NYC
Emotional Support Animal California

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  • Dan says:

    Can I take my emotional support dog to work with me legally? And what if my boss says I cannot have her with me?

  • Amelia Rodriguez says:

    I am even more confused! Companion Dogs, CD certificate, are trained animals to obey and stay close to their owners. Utilitarian Dogs are trained to be helpful to their owners in a work environment. Such as eye-seeing dogs, herding dogs and police dogs are an example. Emotional Support Animals, ESA, help to keep the owner calm when a situation arises that causes the owner stress. The only one allowed in restaurants, grocery stores are the eye seeing dogs. Some dogs that are utilitarian help the owner to shop, open doors and turn on lights. Many people do not know the difference and think that an emotional support animal can go anywhere that they are not allowed making it hard on others who own an ESA. The only thing the law allows with ESA is that they not be separated from their owners in Airplanes and apartments. Which are time of stress for the owner. I have an ESA and having a hard time getting support from the Apartments owners because of all the misunderstandings of the law. Even my doctor does not know the law. She thinks an ESA can go anywhere. She told me not to take my dog into grocery stores, restaurants or office building. That is not allowed.

    • Diane says:

      Can an ESA go anywhere with it’s owner? For example, we know a person who has a recently doctor recommended support dog and this person wants to bring the dog to a local board meeting and also social events open to neighbors in our complex. Is this legal? We live in Florida This person has had the dog for several years and has been asked not to bring the dog to public meetings, etc. That upset the dog owner; she has now been diagnosed with early onset alsheimers and dememtia and a doctor has now “written” a letter that the dog is a support animal. It has been a PET for years. Where do the laws apply ?

      • Mary says:

        ESA’s are only allowed to be with their owner in housing and on airlines. They are not permitted ANYWHERE ELSE. They are protected by the Fair Housing Act and Air Carrier Access Act. They are not protected by ADA-and therefore cannot protected outside of those two places.

  • Annette says:

    Question I have 2 dogs a large Terrier and a small Chihuahua. I am diabetic, have as asthma and sleep apnea and frequently stop breathing during the night. My Terrier will nudge and use her paws to wake me up when I stop breathing during the middle of the night and my Chihuahua knows when my sugar is to high or low and he can sense when I am going to have an asthma attack. Would they or could the be considered support or emotional support assistance animals?

    • Hales says:

      With what you are describing, those would be service animals. Requiring proof appropriate training. With those credentials, yes.

  • Gracie says:

    I am wanting to get a pet for my next college semester. I am moving into a house that says it doesn’t allow pets. I have taken the assent and have gotten my ESA letter, however my landlord refuses to accept it. Stating “anyone can get that off the internet” and he wouldn’t accept any letters.

    • Hales says:

      If it is from a doctor, then they are violating your rights. You can have them contact their lawyer and be in touch with yours. That is a violation of the ADA and the FHA.

  • Susan says:

    Can an ESA dog be allowed in a. National Park?

  • Arienfire says:


    • Hal says:

      That’s not true. You can visit the HUD website. Landlords get sued all the time for not allowing an ESA because it’s discrimination.

  • Victoria says:

    PLEASE HELP ME! LAWYERS INVOLVED ! Can a Landlord force me to move into one of their other buildings after I signed a lease and they Found out i have an ESA ? They said i with held information but I did not get the ESA or Even Purchase the dog until AFTER the lease was signed & i have dates and proof of Dog purchase and when I was recommended ESA from my therapist. They contacted lawyers after i notified them of my ESA!
    PLEASE HELP. THEYVE CONTACTED THEIR LAWYERS SAYING I WITHHELD INFORMATION WHEN SIGNING LEASE. I checked the lease on part for Animals and ESA and it doesn’t even state if you have prior knowledge or Suspicion of getting ESA to let them know. Please help. Should I Fight This???? I’m 6 months pregnant and have A 1 yr old. I don’t want to have to move if i don’t have to.

    • Hal says:

      Go to hud.gov and type in “emotional support animal.” Your rights are clearly stated, and they also have many cases archived of landlords getting sued for threatening to evict because someone got an emotional support animal. They CANNOT do this it is illegal. If you get an official eviction notice, you will get an opportunity to go to court and prove your case, and you will win.

  • Tom says:

    I have an ESA dog. I’m being denied access to the property. My mother rented the apartment from the owner, she has no problem with the dog. We don’t have a signed lease. Dogs are allowed on the property for owners and renters with their name on the lease. I’m confused. Can anyone help me please? Thank you.

  • Carina says:

    My son is 12 years old and has ocd and Tourette syndrome. He’s terrified of being on his own and when he has to fly it gets even worse (ps: we travel a lot). Can i apply for a certapet letter for him?

  • James says:

    My wife has MS and received a ES letter from her neurologist. We are planning to travel and I am assuming that the Support letter will cover access to hotels?